Forms of Slavery
Slavery, a term you have probably heard from the past.
It still exist today in many forms.
How do traffickers keep victims under their control?
Traffickers target those they believe to be most vulnerable and easiest to exploit. Victims often tricked, manipulated and coerced into a life of exploitation, many living in over-crowded and inhumane conditions.
Victims are usually threatened, beaten and abused to ensure they do not try to leave or contact the authorities for help.
Forced labour is a global problem and the most common type of exploitation. It affects men, women and children all around the world. Forced labour is when a person is coerced to work or provide a service for little or no pay, and usually cannot leave without punishment or the threat of penalty. In the UK forced labour is found in sectors characterised as low-skilled and low-paid labour.
Forced labour is used all over the world to produce products in our supply chains. The most common sectors forced labour takes place is;
Manufacturing, processing and packaging
Construction, mining, quarrying and brick kilns
Prostitution and sexual exploitation
Car washes and nail bars
How does this happen?;
Retention of identity documents
Threats to inform authorities if they are immigrants
No wage, withholding wages or wage reductions
Threats or physical harm
Adults and children can be sexually exploited. Many adult survivors report difficult childhood histories; child abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and a background in care homes.
Sexual exploitation includes rape, prostitution, sexual photography, and performing sexual acts to which the person has not consented or was pressured into taking part.
Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE) is a form of child sexual abuse and typically involves a stage of grooming. This happens when a child or young person is manipulated, forced or coerced into taking part in sexual activity, they are often given gifts, money, drugs and affection in exchange for performing these sexual acts to keep them compliant.
The abusers often use threats or violence making the victim feel they have no choice or way out of the situation.
Victims of forced labour may also be victims of debt bondage, where they are forced to work for little or no pay to repay their debt.
Victims may be offered a job abroad with “free” transportation, or they may borrow money from the 'employer' for finding the job. Once they have arrived in an unfamiliar country, they then find the job either does not exist or is not what was originally offered, and are trapped trying to pay off the debt.
Real Life Case Study:
Safe and Free have recently discovered multiple cases of debt bondage in a small factory in the UK.
Night shift workers were coerced into using drugs whilst at work to keep them 'alert' and help them 'perform better'. The drugs were supplied by a superior member of staff, someone they felt they could trust. However, the workers were forced to pay more than half their salary to the higher positioned member of staff/drug dealer.
Forced Marriage/ Child Marriage
One or both people do not, or cannot consent to the marriage. It is estimated each year, 12 million girls are married before the age of 18.
Forced marriage can happen to anyone from any background and nationality, it is when a person faces physical pressure to marry (for example, emotional or psychological pressure, or physical/ sexual violence) they may be made to feel like they are putting shame on their family if they do not marry.
In 2014 forced marriage was made a criminal offence in England and Wales, this includes:
taking someone abroad to force them to marry (even if the forced marriage doesn't take place)
marrying someone who can't consent to the marriage
Child Marriage is any formal or informal unification where one or both parties are under the age of 18.
born without the right to freedom
Descent based slavery where people are born into a world of slavery. This is because their ancestors were trapped in slavery and by descent they themselves become slaves.
This type of slavery still exists in countries such as Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal. Slaves are treated as property to their 'masters' and receive no pay for their work.
Children are often taken away from their parents at a young age and forced to work, education is non-existent in these areas. It is very common girls are sexually abused and forced to marry at the wishes of their 'master'.
Child Labour / Exploitation
The ILO indicates that there are 152 million victims of child labour worldwide; 72 million of the victims work in hazardous labour.
Child labour is the exploitation of children in many forms that deprives children of their childhood and school education.
This is often harmful to their physical and mental health. Children many be sexually exploited, violating their dignity and morals.
Children are often separated from their families, exposed to serious and hazardous toxins, made to work for little or no pay, and left to fend for themselves at a very early age.